The Mighty Ahom Dynasty : Remember The Glorious 600 Years

The Mighty Ahom Dynasty : Remember The Glorious 600 Years





Remember The Glorious 600 Years


Arrival of Ahom.


The people of the ‘ Tai ' caste belongs to the Irawati vally of Brahmadesh .They are known as Ahom now a days. In step with advent of hindu royal dynasty ,they're known as ‘ indrabanshi ', that is why the kings of ahom caste are called ‘ swargdev '. in early 10th century the 2 princes of ahom solid named ‘ khunlung ' and ‘ khunlai ' got here to the north for the cause of conquering countries . They both rulled for almost a year in a state named ‘ Mungrimungram ' now it is in the other side of ‘ Patkai ' hill in the north-east side of Assam . But for some reason self coil took place between them . Therefore elder brother Khunlung left to the north with anger and established a new empire in China. Khunlai rulled over seventy years in Mungrimungram. After his demise, the last king of his cest rulled over 40 years .After that, a prince was cast as the king of Mungrimagram, a worm of Khunlang brought from China . After this king, there were 40 king rulled the empire gradually and later from Khunlung's cest, the greatest king of Ahom 
Siu- ka- pha (Syukapha) was throwned.


The Greatest King Siu-Ka-Pha



 After rulling 18 years Swargdev Siu-ka-pha headed from Tipam to DikhowMukh via Dihing and he reached Dilii Mukh . He then befriended the kings of Borahi and Moran, named Thamithuma, and through marriage they conversed with the four princesses of Moran.

Entering Sowmar the king Siu-ka-pha accompanied  with  Thawmongklinglonmung BuragohainThawmongkanangan Borgohain including 8 official stuff, 1080 ground soldier, 300 horse riders and 2 elephants, without any woman. But Siu-ka-pha defeated the rulers of sutch small empire like Matak , Borahi, Moran, Naamrup, Tipam, Abhayapur, Habung, Ligiri gaon , Simaluguri, Naamdang and later he established Charaideo as his capital town and slowly the boundaries of his empires increasing rapidly.

 Within a few days he was becoming so powerful that the rulers of tiny empire of Kaamrup forced to pay taxes to him. The mighty Swargdeo Siu-ka-pha was never defeated. When he attacked an empire he defeated it and made the people to pay taxes. There was no king as powerful as Syu-ka-pha before.

 Therefore the other Kings recognised SYU-KA-PHA as the most powerful king of Assam. His whole empire came to know as Assam. This was the main relationship of Assam and Ahom. The Ahoms' of Tai caste Directly recognised Assam in there language ‘Mong-Dun-Son-Khun' ( Piecious beautiful garden land ) .



 The Swargdeo SYU-KA-PHA was a great political king. He was not only a conquer but also very talented political person. He had sacrifice a lot for the welfare of his empire. Even did not hasitate to leave his brother for the sack for the empire. The number of Ahom's people is less than the people they rule over. There were no woman of there own caste with them. They had face so many problems to commucate with the Kings of other empire. Therefore the Swargdeo SYU-KA-PHA started using the language of local people in royal work. Since then the Tai language was only used in Ahom's chronology and in religious scriptures .



     Now, People do not use or discuss about the language of Ahom and it's very rare to hear about it .The people belong to Ahom caste who came with the king SIU-KA-PHA married  the daughter of Adivashi and for their existence of their own kind .


    The Swargdeo SYU-KA-PHA was the first Tai king in Sowmar. He rulled over 39 years, keeping his existence of power. He was died in a very old age in 1268 A.c.
                

List of all kings after Swargdeo Siu-Ka-Pha



1. Swargdeo Shuteu-Pha.      

2. Swargdeo Shubin-Pha.

3. Swargdeo Shukhang-Pha


4. Swargdeo Shukhrang-pha
  
5. Swargdeo Shutu-Pha. 

6. Swargdeo Tiyaukhamthi.

7. Swargdeo Shudang-Pha.  

8. Swargdeo Shujang-Pha.

9. Swargdeo Shufakk- Pha  

10. Swargdeo Shusenn- Pha.

11. Swargdeo Shuhan- Pha. 

12. Swargdeo Shupim-Pha.

13. Swargdeo Shuhung-Mung.

14. Swargdeo Shuklann-pha

15. Swargdeo Shukham-Pha.  

16. Swargdeo Shuram-Pha

17. Swargdeo Shutiying-Pha.  

18. Swargdeo Shutammla

19. Swargdeo Shupung-Mung  

20. Swargdeo Shunyatt-pha.

21. Swargdeo Shuklann-Pha. 

22. Swargdeo Shuhung 

23. Swargdeo Guubor konwar. 

24. Swargdeo Shujin-Pha

25. Swargdeo Shudou-Pha.    

26. Swargdeo Shulikk-Pha

27. Swargdeo Shupatt-Pha

28. Swargdeo Shukhrang-Pha

29. Swargdeo Shutann-Pha.

30. Swargdeo Shunenn-Pha

31. Swargdeo Shurem-Pha.   

32. Swargdeo Shunyeu-Pha

33. Swargdeo Shuhit PongPha.                                        

34.Swargdeo Kamleswar Singha

35. Swargdeo Chandrakanta Singha.

36. Swargdeo Purandar Singha.

37. Swargdeo Jogeshwar Singha.



List of All Official Staff of Ahom royalty


1. Buragohain.

2. Borgohain. 
     
3. Borpatra Gohain.

4. Bor phukan .


5. Borboruah.

6. Shadiyakhuwa Gohain.

7. Shalal Gohain. 

               
8. Morongi Khuwa Gohain.

9. Jogiyal Gohain. 


10. Kajoli Mukhiya Gohain.


11. Nauboisha phukan.
                
12. Pani phukan.

13. Bhitoruwal phukan.


14. Dujan deka phukan.
      
15. Dujan Dihingiya phukan.

16. Na phukan.
  
17. Chetia phukan.
                                                   
18. Neog phukan.

19. Nyayhudha phukan.                                                                                     
20. Changrungar phukan. 
    
21. Rahiyal phukan.

22. Nibukiyal Rajkhuwa.
      
23. Bosha Rajkhuwa.

24. Dujan Dihingiya Rajkhuwa.

25. Dujan Shalaguria Rajkhuwa.

26. Abhay Puria Rajkhuwa.

27. Namdongia Rajkhuwa.

28. Dikhow mukhiya Rajkhuwa.
   
29. Gajpuria Rajkhuwa.

30. Doyongiya Rajkhuwa.

31. Ghiladhoria Rajkhuwa.

32. Tipamia Rajkhuwa.
      
33. Chetia patra Boruah.

34. Moranor Gohain Boruah.

35. Dujan Gharfalia Boruah.

36.Shangrungar Boruah. 
    
37. Choladhora Boruah.

38. Kharghoria phukan.
         
39. Dhekiyal phukan.

40. Nauholiya phukan.
              
41. Tamuli phukan.

42. Shiring  phukan.


43. Rajguru phukan.

44. Kath Boruah.  
                                                  
45. Saliha Boruah. 

46. Majindar Boruah.
                        
47. Jalbhari phukan.
               
48. Gandhiya phukan.

49. Khanikar Boruah.
                   
50. Sensuwa Boruah.

51. Changmai Boruah.
                 
52. Hati Boruah.   

53. Ghora Boruah.
  
54. Kukurasuwa Boruah.


55. Chaudang Boruah.

56. Dolakharia Boruah.

57. Joldhora Boruah.
            
58. Bez Boruah. 
  
59. Dulia Boruah.   
                
60. Dorbodhora Boruah.

61. Kathkatiya Boruah.

62. Moliya Boruah.
                          
63. Ghiu Boruah.

64. Pakhimoria Boruah.
        
65. Gajpuria Boruah.
66. Hilakuti Boruah.
                  
67. Saraimoria Boruah.

68. Dhenususa Boruah.
            
69. Jutokia Boruah.

70. Raidongia phukan.
                   
71. Parbotia phukan.

72. Khangia phukan.
        .    
73. Saringia phukan.

74. Tipamia phukan.
                 
75. Raidongia Boruah.

76. Parbotia Boruah.
                 .    
77. Khangia Boruah.

78.Saringiya Boruah.
                 
79. Tipamiya Boruah.

80. Namrupia Boruah.
           
81. Rahiyal Boruah.

82. Puronimelor Boruah.
        
83. Majiumelor Boruah. 

84. Horumelor Boruah. 
          
85. Mahimelor Boruah.

86. NaMelor Boruah.
                 
87. Gavorumelor Boruah. 

88. Kolisengor Boruah.
               
89. Anaighoriya Boruah.

90. Langi phukan.
                    
91. Phool Boruah.

92. Pikchai chetia phukan .


* Best Sign Of The Glorious Ahom Dynasty (Sivasagar ) Assam .



*Sign 1. Siva Dol :



About eight hundred years ago, in the spring of 1228, Chao Lung Siu Kha and his people descended into the plains of Assam, swept away by the mighty Brahmaputra.  Xu Khafa belonged to the Shan / Tai tribe of Yunnan province in southwestern China and was a prince of his tribe.  He was an enterprising man and probably wanted to break up in search of green pastures and thus he crossed the Patkai hills and is now known as Sibsagar in Assam.  Thus began the famous Ahom dynasty of Assam.  He ruled a vast area of ​​Assam uninterrupted for nearly 600 years, which today includes Sibsagar, Golaghat and Jorhat districts.  He ruled before and after the Burmese invasion until 1819, when the kingdom was completely overthrown by the British.  From about 1826 the province was incorporated as part of the British Empire.

Footprints of this great dynasty can be seen near the present city of Sibsagar where he was the administrative capital.  I was traveling to Sibsagar, so I took the opportunity to see the remains of a great civilization.  The city of Sivasagar is almost marine from Jorhat and Dibrugarh.  I was going towards Dibrugarh and from there I walked on the road after walking a distance of kilometers with raw green tea zamindari and small villages.




The Chinese first established their administrative capital at Charaide, about 28 km from Sivasagar.  I could only see the places around Sibsagar city and could not even go to the pasture.  It is also a pasture, where one can find "Moidam" or King's themed tombs.  These are basically burial rooms where the King and Queens were laid to rest.  The corpses were commonly used in everyday life in wooden coffins and then in wooden structures as well as furniture, everyday utensils and other cosmetic items.  A brick and mortar pyramid was built.  This somewhat represents the practice seen in ancient Egypt.


 Interestingly, as the years passed, the Ahoms merged with the local people, established matrimonial relations with neighboring states and gradually converted to Hinduism.  He became a worshiper of Shiva and Vishnu.  However, he did not allow his Chinese origins to be fully known and retained some rituals related to his past.  The Ahom kings took the Hindu names 'Rudra Singha' and 'Shiva Singha', but they also retained the names of their tribes.  Most notable in his source culture are his funeral and burial practices.  The Ahoms believe in 'ancestral worship' and the maids represent it.


The architectural monuments of Sibsagar can be divided into two parts, firstly there are religious structures here, most of the temples are known as "dols", Assam and secondly, secular like palace, amphitheater, tank and maidens  Are structures.  What we see today is that it was built between 1700 AD to 1800 AD.  Prior to this period all structures such as palaces and temples no longer exist because they were originally made of bamboo and wood and could not withstand the crack of time.  The Ahom kings dated to 1500 and 1200 AD.  Spent the early years between and firmly established their rule in the region and spent most of their time fighting against local tribes.  The years of original formation began with Raja Sukalmanjung (1539 - 1552), who established a new capital at Gadgaon, 13 km from the present city of Sibsagar.  He built a beautiful palace at Gadgaon.  Unfortunately no trace of this great palace was found except in the descriptions given by the travelers of that time.  The description given by Shihabuddin Tabish was most important when Mir Jumla invaded this place in 1662.  Ahom ruled between 1696 and 1714 during the reign of King Rudra Singh, a descendant of power and culture.  He again moved from the capital Gargaon and built a beautiful city called 'Rangpur' on the banks of the river Dikho which is now the city of Sibsagar.  This glory continued during the reigns of his successors Pramatt Sinha, Rajeshwar Sinha and Lakshmi Sima and began to decline by 1780.  These were the early years and the art, architecture and culture of the Ahom dynasty played an important role in the creation of Assamese culture which is predominant in Upper Assam today.


 As I have said, the kings converted to Hinduism and became worshipers of Shiva and Vishnu.  name it.  In fact all the temples of Ahom kings were connected by tanks and huge ponds or lakes adjoining all the temples were dug.  These tanks serve as a source of water and enhance the beauty of the city.  Hence, there is a city full of tanks like Sinksagar, Gaurisagar and Jaisagar.  It reminds me of the Kochbihar and Bishnupur closed houses where the Kings built temples as well as similar huge lakes.


On the banks of Sivasagar, Shiva dol extends to two small temples, Devidol and Vishnudol, which is 31 meters tall.  These were built between 1731 and 1734 by Rani Ambika, wife of Shiva Singha.


 These temples are based on the octagonal plain, 'Jwala' rises above 'Garbha' which is the main sanctity.  Another feature is that 'face pavilion' is associated with 'garbha'.  It is a rectangular structure in which the Bengali roof resembles a Bengali Charchala style.  It is the place where prayers and offerings were made to the deities.  Another structure, known as "submandapa", was also used during the celebration.  It is basically a rectangular plywood in front of the av face pavilion for fans to stay.  These are now part of the main structure and sheds are built upon it.  The walls of the temples were decorated with statues of goddesses and deities, but most of them were in ruins.


 The cluster of temples looks beautiful, which stands tall on the banks of Sibsagar Lake and attracts huge crowds during festivals like Shiva Ratri.  There is a way around Sivasagar where locals come to spend their leisure time and roam the lake in the morning and evening.


* Sign 2. Joy Dol:


 Jaysagar Lake is on the outskirts of the city of Sisagar and is a very beautiful and ancient place.  It is the largest current in the ocean.  The lake has water sports facilities including boating, kayaking and speedboats.


 On the banks of the lake, in the beautiful terrain, is the Joydal Temple.  It was built by King Rudra Singh in 1698 with stones and bricks and was dedicated to Lord Vishnu.  The High Peak is about 30.48 meters high and has 12 small verandahs around the main ik peak.  But now this temple is invalid for any deity and I could only enter the dark and empty stone temple garbha with the only light shining through the narrow gate.  As I stepped into the long 'summit' above me, I could only see the darkness that was almost felt, my voice reverberating in the gaps of darkness with a feeling of anxiety.  There are two small temples around the temple complex, Shivadol and Devidol .  The most interesting is the "Ghanshyam Bari" or Nati-Gasan temple.  It is a simple Bengali cha achla 'style temple, which adorns the walls with the same type of terracotta stripes that show you the deities, flowers and geometric patterns in Bishnupur.  This is a perfect example of the influence of Bengal in Assam, as Raja Rudra Singh patronized the people of Bengal as he was a craftsman and architect who visited Assam in his time.


* Sign 3.  Rang Ghar;


In Part 1 and Part 2 of this series I have talked about Sivasagar temples.  But the most interesting and beautiful architecture is the palace I have seen, in terms of the overall beauty and uniqueness of its use, the Rang Ghar has greeted me.


 Rang Ghar was built by King Pramatt Sinha in 1746.  It was originally a pavilion and arena to enjoy a wide variety of sports and indoor games from wrestling to animal fighting.  As you can see in the photo, it is an oval shaped double storey building with a roof terrace.


 Above this dome shaped roof at the top is a stone replica of a tall boat that adds to the beauty of the structure.  There are long flights to the front stairs which lead to the first floor of the hall.


 There are two small rooms at the front and back.  There is an arched central hall decorated with a pointed front that gives shape to the building.



 The walls were once decorated with panels depicting animal fight scenes but very few of them remain today.  I saw only a few panels and the rest was destroyed and this building was equipped to cover layers of concrete.  The arched arrow is also an octagonal shape with arched entrances.



 The place is now under maintenance of ASI and beautiful landscaping is done around this great structure.

 For details of other very interesting structures, Kareng Ghar and Gargaon Palace, please read example 4 & 5 also.


* Sign 4. Talatol Ghar:



 Around the historic city of Rangpur where the modern Sibsagar city was built, the Talatol Ghar is the greatest architecture of the time, but I am sad to see that it is in ruins, but I can still think how much the palace is in its royal house  Was great  It was also a stronghold of Ahom power.  It was built by King Rudra Singh and later Raja Rajeshwar Simah got it renovated and expanded.



 It was originally a seven-story building, four above the ground and three stories below.  Of which only the first floor was present and I could go down only one floor.  Due to the position of the ruins it resembles a building of irregular structure with many levels, paths and stairs of many levels.  There is a temple here which is still on the first floor.  On the lower floor where I was able to enter the dark and dark interior with low arches, it seemed that the area was used as a storage space and also used stables for horses and other animals  I went.


 I could walk from my narrow path to another where my head was tied with narrow arches and often they were connected to each other, in other words a complex circle of tunnels and rooms.  It is said that the palace had two underground tunnels, one 1.6 km long and towards the Dikho river and the other 16 km long Garhgaon Mahal.  These were probably built as a way to avoid enemy attacks.  I remember the same thing in Murshidabad, where the Nawabs built underground tunnels.  Now apparently some tunnels are not accessible to the general public as I was told that the tunnels were sealed by ASI.  Inside one of the underground chambers, the face of a tunnel that looked like a dark opening was shown.  The light from the LED flashlight we had failed to cut through the darkness and we no longer tried to venture.


 Upstairs some rooms still stand in the width of time.  These were called  pujaghar 'or puja ghar, ant mantranagar' or royal consultation room and possibly kitchen.  The entire building and surrounding walls were made of thin and flat bricks and I was told that lime use was not known in those days so egg peels and rice paste were used as mortar.




 * Sign 5.The Gargaon Palace or Kareng Ghar : 




 Gargaon, which is about 13 km east of the main city Sivasagar, during the reign of King Sulaklangam (13999 - 1552 AD), shifted his capital from Ahmad Charaidev and built a magnificent palace at Gargaon.  The palace is said to have been built of wood, stone and bamboo and was covered with precious and semi-precious stones.  It was decorated with beautiful woodwork, motifs and brass and stone.  Unfortunately, the next time there was nothing left of the five-story brick fare.  It is no longer in its original glory.  Descriptions of the original palace can only be found in the writings of Shahabuddin Talish who accompanied Mir Jumla on March 1, 162622, when he invaded the place.


 However, the present structure, by Raja Rajeshwar Singha, 1752 AD.  I was made with Kareng Ghar.  The shape of this building looked attractive, something like a chariot, it draws on top it is an inscribed pyramid.  It is a five-story building with one storey underground.  Downstairs there are three halls with front and back rooms.



 The hall and rooms are adjacent for use.  The upper two floors are surrounded by arches around a central hall.  The staircase of the arch is on the right side of the building where one can go up.



 I went upstairs.  Looking at the last floor, it looked like a small Muay Pyramid.  A short flight of stairs to the center took me to a small open terrace of less than a square meter.  It is believed that there was a beautiful dome that no longer exists.  From the top open, standing on the small terrace where two people can stand together,



 I had a 360 degree view of the landscape around me and it was beautiful and green from all sides.  At the bottom is a relic that resembled a sandy box.


 This palace was also destroyed by an earthquake and lost much of its original glory but what still exists is beautiful and I could not help but admire the aesthetic sensibilities of the people who made this great place.  It is said that the chief architect of Ahom built the city of Rangpur by a Muslim gentleman named Ghansama of Bengal.  Like all great states, the Ahmas built some great architecture that testify to their strength and power.  The Assamese culture we see today has its roots in the Ahom dynasty where it developed continuously for its present condition.

Ahoms' Pyramid : Now Became a Tourist Place







Chahardeo was also the capital of the Ahom dynasty which was built by a man named Sukhpa. It is located about 28 km from Sibsagar. This place is commonly known as the Pyramid of Assam.  It is located in the foothills of Nagaland. This place is the site of many cemeteries of the Ahom rulers and their queen which is considered extremely sacred. There are about 42 tombs of kings and queens on the top of Chardev hill. The architecture of these tombs can be compared to the Egyptian pyramids and the outstanding work by the masons of Assam in medieval times is depicted.The main attraction of this place is its tomb whirlpool which reveals a lot of information about the lifestyle and culture of the Ahom rulers. The main architectural form of the tomb is the octagonal dwarf which surrounds the whole tomb or moidam. You will be mesmerized by the floral architecture in the underground architecture and the chambers are all covered by earthen ounds b.  People came from far and wide to pay their respects to this lost soul who played an important role in the history of the country.  There is a park nearby called Sukka Park which has many recreational options for children.


* How did we reach ?


 The city of Sibsagar is well connected to Guwahati, Jorhat and Dibrugarh.  Both Dibrugarh and Jorhat have airports and operate flights from Kolkata.  The distance from Guwahati to Jorhat is 57 km by road and 60 km from Dibrugarh is 64 km.  Road conditions though single lane, well and lots of ASTC private buses between these cities.  You can also get a Tempo Traveler and Tata which runs between these cities.  Private rentals are available.  In Sivasagar you can hire an auto to show you around.


 * How did we live there ?


 There are beautiful hotels in Sivasagar.  You can choose to stay in Sibsagar or you can stay in Jorhat or Dibrugarh, which have comfortable hotels.  You can then rent a car and cover Sibsagar on a day trip.


 * What should we eat ?


 If you have a type of plant for Assamese food, then this part of Assam offers a lot.  There are many similarities between Bengali and Assamese food and cooking styles.  The menu has amazing fish in both and you will find similar preparations like 'Saras Bata' and 'Paturi' which tickles the taste buds of Bengalis.  Arad and chital fish are very popular in Assamese.  You can have rice (try Zoha rice which is fragrant), pulses and potato pitika which is basically 'alu choka' or 'alabote' in Bengali.  In Sibsagar you will find many freshwater fish that come from the lake.  Pork lovers will have reason to celebrate pork dishes as a major part of Assam's cuisine.  You can try lunch at the Lakeside Restaurant, which offers views of Jaisagar Lake.  The restaurant is tastefully furnished and has large glass windows to allow you to taste your food as well as get an uninterrupted view of the lake.



         Ahom kingship is India's longest, successful and powerful kingship . Ahom rulled mightily in India for 600 years .People of Ahom caste are always proud of this . Even a huge and mighty power like Mughal has to be defeated many times in front of Ahom power.


          If u want to know more about Ahoms' dynasty or any questions about it pls comment me, I will try to tell you guys .

19 Comments

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